On Monday, January 30, St. Louis, MO became the fifth city in the Midwest to pass a mandatory energy benchmarking ordinance.
The “Building Energy Awareness” ordinance requires certain buildings to record annual whole-building energy and water consumption data into the free ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager software. City-owned buildings will lead the way benchmarking in the first year under the ordinance. Privately-owned commercial buildings 50,000 sq.ft. and larger will need to comply by April 1, 2018. Both city- and privately-owned buildings will be required to report their consumption information each year thereafter.
The ordinance passed unanimously in less than two months from its introduction, likely because St. Louis is no stranger to taking action to reduce energy consumption in buildings. The St. Louis High Performance Building Initiative was launched in 2014, which includes building benchmarking and goals of reducing energy consumption in buildings 25% by 2020. St. Louis is also part of the City Energy Project, a national initiative to cut energy waste in buildings in twenty US cities.
Cities across the nation continue looking to benchmarking ordinances to help achieve energy reduction goals. Benchmarking is the first step to achieving deep energy savings in buildings, which comprise around 40 percent of energy consumption in the United States.
After a hiatus of more than a decade, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is close to completing the update of the residential building code ASHRAE 90.2: Energy Efficient Design of Low Rise Residential Buildings. ASHRAE 90.2 is the companion standard to the better-known ASHRAE 90.1, which is the energy efficiency standard for commercial and high rise residential buildings.
The new code will provide a powerful tool to help advance energy efficiency in residential buildings, providing long-term cost saving, comfort and health benefits to homeowners and renters. It also will provide a template available to utility above-code programs, municipalities and states looking for stretch codes.
ASHRAE vs. IECC
ASHRAE 90.2 is a leadership standard in that ASHRAE intends it to be more energy efficient than current energy codes. Dwellings that meet this standard will use significantly less energy than a building meeting even the most recent energy codes. The foreward to the code says:
“This new Standard 90.2 seeks to deliver residential building energy performance that is at least 50% more efficient than the energy efficiency defined by the 2006 IECC.”
IECC is the International Energy Conservation Code, which is widely adopted across the nation as the energy code for residential buildings. The most recent code is the 2018 IECC, though 90.2 uses the 2006 IECC as a baseline standard to compare itself against.
ASHRAE 90.2 is a performance-based standard tied to aggressive Energy Rating Index (ERI) targets. In the most recent version of the IECC (2018), the ERI compliance path has values between 57 and 62 depending on the building’s climate zone (an ERI of 100 is roughly equivalent to the 2006 IECC and an ERI of 0 is a zero energy building). The proposed ERI values in ASHRAE 90.2 are slightly below 50. Moreover, ASHRAE 90.2 incorporates on-site renewables as well as enhanced sections on lighting and HVAC equipment. Finally, the standard has added sections on reporting and verifying results as well as guidance on verifying that the dwelling meets the requirements. While these sections are typically not included in codes, they are important to helping ensure that promised energy savings are realized.
Currently, ASHRAE 90.2-2007R (the name of the proposed update), is under public review. A first round of review is being completed, and there will be at least one additional round prior to final publication (targeted for the Fall of 2017).
A year ago, the Clean Power Plan (CPP) – a federal rule aimed at curbing greenhouse gas emissions from existing fossil-fuel burning power plants – was in peak health. The rule had been finalized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Several states were on their way to preparing their initial plans for complying with the CPP. The EPA had begun gathering public input on draft documents that would supplement the rule, including the Clean Energy Incentive Program, Model Trading Rules and Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Guidance for Demand-Side Energy Efficiency. Despite the chill of winter, there was no lack of CPP-activity.
What a difference a year can make!
On February 9, 2016, the U.S. Supreme Court issued a stay on the CPP. This barred the EPA from enforcing the rule until its legality was resolved by the courts in a separate proceeding – currently before the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals. The decision raised questions about the position that the Supreme Court would take if the case against the CPP on the merits reached the highest court. The subsequent passing of Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia, a typically conservative member of the bench, further muddied the waters on the prospective fate of the CPP. Nine months later, the CPP suffered another setback as the candidate who promised to undo the Obama Administration’s climate-protection policies was elected as the next President of the United States.
The Future of the CPP
So where does that leave the CPP today? Even if the CPP survives legal challenge, the likelihood that the rule will be fully implemented, in its current form, appears slim. Although President Donald Trump has not specified exactly how his administration would go about undoing the CPP, the rule may be eliminated or minimized in several different ways. This includes both legislative action (legislation invalidating the rule) and executive inaction (the incoming EPA withholding enforcement). If the case against the CPP reaches the Supreme Court (which is not expected until the Court’s 2017-18 term), the administration’s appointment of a conservative Supreme Court Justice to fill Justice Scalia’s seat may impact the rule’s fate as well.
Perhaps tacitly recognizing uncertain times ahead for the CPP, the EPA recently withdrew from interagency review a number of draft documents it had proposed in August 2015 when it issued the final CPP. These documents include the draft Model Trading Rules and draft EM&V Guidance for Demand-Side Energy Efficiency. The draft Model Trading Rules offered pathways for states to use emissions trading to reduce carbon pollution. The draft EM&V guidance offered states a set of presumptively approvable practices for evaluating, measuring and verifying demand-side energy efficiency in order to support the incorporation of energy efficiency in state compliance plans. While withdrawing these proposed documents, the EPA made working drafts available to the public in order to share the agency’s work to date and aid states that are considering or are already implementing policies and programs that would cut carbon pollution from the power sector. The EPA specifically noted, in a blog post announcing the withdrawal, that “states interested in using or expanding energy efficiency programs” might find the material presented in the draft EM&V Guidance useful.
What This Means for Energy Efficiency
The CPP is not the first federal air quality rule allowing the use of energy efficiency as a compliance strategy, but it is arguably the most prominent. While the future of the CPP remains indeterminate, the work done by the EPA and other stakeholders supporting the incorporation of energy efficiency into state compliance plans can be a valuable resource going forward. Taken together, this work strengthens the case that energy efficiency provides not only important economic, health and job-creation benefits, but also can be a cost-effective pathway to improving air quality.
In the last month, energy benchmarking at the city level has really heated up in the Midwest. Benchmarking policies have proven to be a crucial first step to achieving energy savings for cities. Buildings comprise around 40 percent of the total energy consumption in the United States.
Kansas City, MO
Kansas City is preparing for its first privately-owned buildings to report under the Kansas City Energy Empowerment Ordinance. All non-municipal buildings (institutional, commercial, and multifamily residential) of at least 100,000 square feet must submit their energy and water consumption data by May 1, 2017.
In preparation for the reporting deadline, MEEA, the US Green Building Council – Central Plains chapter and the Kansas City Energy Project are providing free benchmarking technical support for multifamily buildings on January 25, 2017. Attendees will learn how to use the free ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager software and even set up their own buildings with the help of energy professionals. Space is limited; click here to sign up for this free event.
St. Louis, MO
St. Louis, Missouri is aiming to become the fifth city in the Midwest with a mandatory energy benchmarking ordinance. On December 9, 2016, Alderman John Coater introduced the potential benchmarking ordinance, which unanimously passed the Board of Aldermen’s Public Safety Committee on January 10, 2017. It will likely be voted upon by the city council on January 17th.
If the ordinance passes, city-owned buildings, and privately-owned buildings 50,000 sq.ft. and larger will be required to report their annual whole-building energy and water consumption data into the free ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager software. The ordinance would help reduce building energy use, which is an objective of the city’s Sustainability Plan. Read more about the ordinance here.
On December 12, 2016, the Evanston City Council voted 7-2 to pass the Building Energy and Water Benchmarking Ordinance that had been in development since March 2015. The ordinance will help Evanston meet energy goals by requiring city buildings and buildings over 20,000 square feet (besides small condos) to report annual energy and water consumption. Buildings will be phased in according to size, with the first phase of buildings beginning to report June 30, 2017.
Chicago released their 2016 Energy Benchmarking Report and the second annual release of building-level energy performance data for properties reporting under the Chicago Benchmarking Ordinance. The ordinance now covers more than 3,500 properties across Chicago, and boasts a 91% reporting rate. Initial analysis also indicates that regular energy tracking and reporting is having a significant impact on supporting energy reductions, with potential to achieve additional energy savings of over $200 million a year across the city. The next reporting deadline for all buildings covered by the ordinance is June 1, 2017.
On December 21, Iowa Lieutenant Governor Kim Reynolds, along with the Iowa Economic Development Authority, the Iowa Department of Transportation and the Iowa Partnership for Economic Progress released the Iowa Energy Plan. The plan will serve as a guide for the development of an affordable, reliable and sustainable energy system within the state that maximizes Iowa’s economic potential.
The Iowa Energy plan is the result of a yearlong collaboration between state government, utilities, universities, business organizations, nonprofits, energy trade organizations and the public. As part of the plan’s stakeholder engagement effort, six public forums were held throughout Iowa in March and April to provide members of the public with an opportunity to share input. To leverage expertise from a variety of disciplines and industries, 48 individuals were selected through an application process to form four working groups. These four working groups were aligned with the strategic energy pillars identified as integral to the development of the plan, they include: 1) economic development and energy careers, 2) Iowa’s energy resources, 3) transportation and infrastructure and 4) energy efficiency and conservation. Working group members met over a six-month period to provide input to shape the recommended objectives for each pillar.
Energy Efficiency Objectives
The energy efficiency and conservation working group members identified three objectives: 1) increase the energy efficiency and decrease the operating costs of Iowa’s existing and new buildings in all sectors, 2) encourage the expansion and diversification of energy resources, incentives and programs and 3) lead by example in Iowa’s government practices. To achieve these objectives, several strategies were identified, including benchmarking commercial and industrial utility rates to similar states, benchmarking industrial sector ratepayer program contributions, reinvesting public building energy savings in infrastructure, combined heat and power opportunity analysis, improve building energy code compliance, foster collaboration between the state energy office and Iowa Energy Center and expand the existing public building benchmarking program.
The next phase of the Iowa Energy Plan will involve the implementation of the identified objectives and strategies. Entities involved in the development of the plan, as well as additional stakeholders and members of the public, are invited to reconvene to discuss successful plan implementation. Look to the Iowa Energy plan website or join the Iowa Energy plan email listserv for more information regarding the specifics in the near future.
For questions about MEEA’s resources and activities related to energy efficiency policy in Iowa, please contact Policy Associate Leah Scull at email@example.com.
St. Louis, Missouri is aiming to become the fifth city in the Midwest with a mandatory energy benchmarking ordinance. On December 9, 2016, Alderman John Coater introduced a potential benchmarking ordinance which would help reduce building energy use, an objective of the city’s Sustainability Plan.
The ordinance is similar to other benchmarking measures in the Midwest, suchas those in Kansas City and Chicago. It would require certain buildings to record annual whole-building energy and water consumption data into the free ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager software. Under the ordinance, city-owned buildings will be required to report their energy consumption by December 31, 2017, while privately-owned buildings of 50,000 sq.ft. and larger will have until April 1, 2018. Each year thereafter, both city- and privately-owned buildings will be required to report their consumption information, which the City of St. Louis will then disclose in an annual report. An overview of the ordinance can be found here.
Benefits of Benchmarking
Benchmarking is the first step to achieving deep energy savings in buildings, which comprise around 80 percent of greenhouse gas emissions in St. Louis. Tracking energy and water consumption can help cities identify where to put resources to improve energy efficiency, and can help building owners understand how to best reduce utility bills for themselves and their tenants.
A study of over 35,000 buildings concluded that benchmarking alone resulted in an average of 2.4 percent energy savings each year. Utility programs can further increase energy savings by providing incentives to make capital improvements, if the building owner chooses.
What You Can Do
The Board of Aldermen’s Public Safety Committee is slated to hear the public testimony on the ordinance on Tuesday, January 10. Please email your comments here, addressed to Building Commissioner Frank Oswald.
Note: a previous version of this post contained an incorrect date for the upcoming Public Safety Committee meeting. The error has been corrected.
Here in Chicago where MEEA is based, the winter months get so cold the air hurts my face. During my walk to work a few days ago, I’m pretty sure I was close to becoming an actual Popsicle. The long nights and lack of sunshine only exacerbate the pain.
When the weather outside is colder than the surface of Mars (seriously), there is no better feeling than coming inside to a warm, cozy home. While we battle the harsh Midwest winter, let’s be sure to keep our homes nice and toasty the responsible way. There’s no reason to waste energy and money by trying to overcompensate for sub-par insulation and drafty windows. Try a home energy audit!
A home energy audit and simple home improvements can cut down your energy use, lower utility bills and keep your home comfy and warm. Here in the Land of Lincoln, Illinois Home Performance can help.
Once you select a participating contractor to install your upgrades, not only will you enjoy the benefits of an energy-efficient home, you’ll also receive a certificate that can increase the resale value of your house! Save money on your energy bill now and sell your home for more money later – that’s the power of an energy audit.
To connect with a qualified energy auditor today, visit illinoishomeperformance.org.
Stay warm out there!
Photo credit: Arlenz Chen
On December 27, Ohio Governor John Kasich vetoed Substitute House Bill 554 (Sub. HB 554), which would have extended the two year freeze of the state’s renewable portfolio standard and energy efficiency resource standard (EERS). Specifically, Sub. HB 554 would have imposed an unenforced 1% annual energy savings requirement through 2018, an enforced 1% annual energy savings requirement through 2025 and a 2% annual energy savings requirement through 2027.
Background on the Freeze
Senate Bill 221 (SB 221), which created Ohio’s EERS, requires investor-owned electric utilities and retail suppliers to achieve savings through energy efficiency programs equal to at least 0.3% of sales, gradually ramping up to a cumulative 22% in electricity reduction by 2025.
In the years since SB 221’s passage, Ohio’s EERS has been tremendously successful; annual savings increased twelve-fold and Ohio utilities have collectively exceeded the savings targets every year since 2009 by an average of more than 50% above the target. Despite this success, legislation signed by Kasich in 2014 froze both the EERS and renewable standards for two years.
The Thaw Begins
On November 1, MEEA Policy Manager Nick Dreher and Policy Associate Leah Scull held individual meetings with several Ohio legislators in Columbus. MEEA reviewed the impact of energy efficiency in Ohio and the reduction in energy efficiency investment and energy savings since the repeal of the efficiency standard in Indiana, in addition to discussing the 2016 report by MEEA and the Cadmus Group, The Economic Impacts of Energy Efficiency Investments in Ohio, which found that energy efficiency investments in 2014 alone resulted in nearly 3,000 new jobs, more than $175 million in increased statewide income, about $270 million in total net economic value and over $500 million in net sales.
MEEA staff also submitted written testimony to both the House Public Utilities and the Senate Energy and Natural Resources committees during the Sub. HB 554 hearings.
Kasich Cites MEEA Research in Veto
With Kasich’s veto of Sub. HB 554, Ohio’s EERS will resume on January 1, 2017 at 1% annual energy savings through 2020 and 2% thereafter. In his statement of the reasons for the veto, Kasich stated that “the bill would deal a setback to efforts that are succeeding in helping businesses and homeowners reduce their energy costs through increased efficiency.” The governor’s statement also cited The Economic Impacts of Energy Efficiency Investments in Ohio report: “Energy efficiency investments from 2009- 2012 alone have yielded $1.03 billion in savings to date and will result in $4.15 billion in lifetime savings thanks to the state’s existing energy efficiency standards.”
What Lies Ahead
Despite Governor Kasich’s veto of Sub. HB 554, the 2014 bill that created the two year EERS freeze, Senate Bill 310, also made some notable changes to SB 221 that remain in effect. For example, utility upgrades to transmission and distribution unrelated to reductions in their customers’ energy usage, now count towards the EERS targets. Utilities can also count energy savings achieved independently by customers towards their overall compliance with the target. SB 310 also established an industrial opt-out, which allows large energy users to avoid paying into utility energy efficiency programs.
For questions about MEEA’s resources and activities related to energy efficiency policy in Ohio, please contact Policy Associate Leah Scull at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Update (1/6/17): Sections were added detailing MEEA’s policymaker outreach and the future of EE in Ohio.
On December 21, 2016, Governor Snyder signed into law a comprehensive energy bill package (PA 341/PA 342) that the Michigan legislature passed (as SB 437/SB 438) on December 15, 2016, the very last day of its “lame duck” fall session. PA 341 amends PA 3 and PA 342 amends PA 295. The new language will give additional authority to the Michigan Public Service Commission (MPSC) to 1) initiate a process for reviewing utilities’ integrated resource plans on a three year basis and 2) administer various regulatory mechanisms.
The legislation retains the current 1% (electric) and 0.75% (natural gas) annual energy efficiency standards. However, beginning in 2021, the MPSC will open a docket to determine the appropriate mandated energy efficiency targets for each rate regulated electric provider. 2022 will mark the first year that standards might differ from existing standards and this docketed evaluation will occur every two years. Despite the possibility of adjusted standards, mechanisms are expected to spur utility investment, including: cost-recovery, electric decoupling, financial incentives and tiered shared savings incentives. Lastly, the legislation removes a 2% cap on the rates that utilities can charge customers to pay for energy efficiency programs.
During the legislative process, MEEA provided informational materials and testimony to legislators, including the recently released MEEA/The Cadmus Group report on the Economic Impacts of Energy Efficiency Investments in Michigan.
For questions or information on additional details, please contact Policy Manager Nick Dreher at email@example.com.
The MEEA Codes team took their talents to Cleveland, OH where they held the 7th Annual Midwest Building Energy Codes Conference from November 15 -16, 2016. This event was a success with two productive days of networking and discussion among a diverse group of building efficiency professionals in the Midwest (and some from the coasts). Building professionals were represented from Federal, State and Local Energy Offices, Federal National Laboratories, Consulting Agencies, Non-Profits, and Code Enforcement Agencies. MEEA invited experts from across the Midwest and Nation to discuss timely topics related to building energy code adoption, compliance and enforcement – these are described below.
Commercial Energy Codes 101
Conference attendees enjoyed a breakfast of champions by learning about the Model Commercial Energy Code (ASHRAE 90.1-2013) to start the conference. Although this presentation was extra credit for those early risers, attendees were in their seats, eager to gain a better understanding of the Commercial Energy Code.
Introduction to Building Energy Codes
To “officially” start the day, Isaac Elnecave welcomed everyone to the conference and discussed the purpose of the Codes Conference. This was also a time to recap energy code successes in various states in the Midwest. A MEEA recap sheet can be found in the link below.
Panel 1: Multifamily Energy Efficiency and Codes
Multifamily buildings tend to be the odd building out when it comes to energy codes. This panel discussed the unique difficulties multifamily buildings face in terms of air leakage testing and lays out a rationale for developing a single energy code for multifamily buildings, instead of splitting them between the Residential and Commercial chapters in the IECC.
Frank Spevak, The Energy Conservatory
Jim Edelson, New Buildings Institute
Panel 2: Multifamily Compliance Code Official Forum
Given that multifamily buildings are split between two chapters in the IECC and certain code requirements are difficult to meet, there are often buildings that fail to comply with the energy code. During this panel, local code officials discuss common compliance issues they uncover when inspecting multifamily buildings in the field. Alison Lindburg from MEEA takes the following code officials through a series of pointed questions and the audience works together to discuss possible solutions.
- Richard Burton, Building and Safety Department, City of Lincoln, NE
- Emily Hoffman, NYC Department of Buildings, NYC, NY
- Tim Manz, Building Inspection Department, City of Blaine, MN
- Tom Vanover, Building and Housing, City of Cleveland
Panel 3: Making Multifamily High Performance
It is often said that building affordable multifamily projects with energy efficient features that go above the Model Energy Code is impossible due to funding constraints. However, the speaker in this panel put that myth to rest with several examples of how his firm is bringing Net-Zero (buildings that produce more energy than they consume) to affordable multifamily buildings. Tim McDonald understands that, in order for a building to truly be affordable, one must consider the cost of construction and long-term energy costs to the renter.
- The PFHA Project – A National Net-Zero Energy-Capable Affordable Housing Initiative
Tim McDonald, Onion Flats
Panel 4: 2018 IECC Development Process
Over the past year, building efficiency stakeholders recommended changes to the 2018 IECC and met twice to hash out these proposals during the development process. The IECC is updated every three years and the final vote on this update took place at the beginning of November. This presentation discussed how the code is developed and what changes might be included once the 2018 IECC is finalized.
Eric Makela, Cadmus Group
Panel 5: Water Efficiency in the Code
Although water use is not regulated in the Model Energy Code, these presenters talk about the potential to save energy when water use is reduced in buildings. These speakers recommend two different approaches to reduce water use in buildings, one is through added language in the energy code and the other is by using a water modeling program called the Water Efficiency Rating Score (WERS).
Karen Hobbs, National Resources Defense Council
Mike Collignon, Green Builder ® Coalition
Panel 6: Lighting up the Commercial Code
Day one finished with an in-depth discussion on the often mysterious lighting portion in the Model Commercial Energy Code. Learn about some of the energy considerations lighting designers make on a daily basis with this presentation.
Eric Richman, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Networking Dinner: After a long day in the classroom, attendees were ready to explore the Cleveland nightlife.
Energy Codes Conference Recap: Day 2
Panel 1: Ventilation
The residential chapter in the Model Energy Code requires that buildings meet and are verified to have a certain level of air leakage As builders begin to push the envelope (pun intended) and buildings become tighter, the type and rate of mechanical ventilation becomes a hot topic of discussion. This presenter outlines the various types of mechanical ventilation and displays best practices for tight and efficient homes.
Patrick Huelman, University of Minnesota Extension
Panel 2: Commercial Compliance Studies
Compliance studies are an effective approach to understanding how buildings are being constructed and outline the aspects of the energy code that engineers, designer’s, and builders could use additional training. During this panel we heard from three speakers on different ways to develop and implement a commercial compliance study in the field.
Poppy Storm, Ecotope, Inc.
Russ Landry, Center for Energy and Environment
David Cohan, Department of Energy
Panel 3: Testing Commercial Buildings
Although conducting a blower door test is not a requirement in the Commercial Model Energy Code, this is a clear path to achieve deeper energy savings in all building types. In this panel we hear about the recent adoption of the 2015 IECC in NYC which includes an amendment to require blower door tests on certain commercial building types.
Emily Hoffman, NYC Buildings Department
Panel 4: Getting to a Zero Energy Ready Code
This panel brought in energy code experts to discuss how to achieve more robust energy codes in jurisdictions and states throughout the nation. With the development of stretch codes, these areas have become efficiency leaders with the adoption of codes that go above the Model Energy Code. Our speakers and attendees discussed the potential for this energy code mechanism to eventually move the Model Energy Code from its current level to a zero energy code.
Alison Lindburg, Midwest Energy Efficiency Alliance
Cathy Chappell, TRC Energy Services
Jim Edelson, New Buildings Institute
A big thanks to all our Super Energy Code professionals for making this Codes Conference another success – we couldn’t have done it without you!